Primary Years Programme
International Baccalaureate, Baccalauréat International, Bachillerato Internacional
and IB logos are registered trademarks of the International Baccalaureate Organization.
Published October 2018
Update December 2018
Published on behalf of the International Baccalaureate Organization, a not-for-profit
educational foundation of 15 Route des Morillons, 1218 Le Grand-Saconnex, Geneva,
Switzerland by the
International Baccalaureate Organization (UK) Ltd
Peterson House, Malthouse Avenue, Cardiff Gate
Cardiff, Wales CF23 8GL
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2018
The International Baccalaureate Organization (known as the IB) offers four high-quality and challenging educational programmes for a worldwide community of schools, aiming to create a better, more peaceful world. This publication is one of a range of materials produced to support these programmes.
The IB may use a variety of sources in its work and checks information to verify accuracy and authenticity, particularly when using community-based knowledge sources such as Wikipedia. The IB respects the principles of intellectual property and makes strenuous efforts to identify and obtain permission before publication from rights holders of all copyright material used. The IB is grateful for permissions received for material used in this publication and will be pleased to correct any errors or omissions at the earliest opportunity.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the IB’s prior written permission, or as expressly permitted by the Rules for use of IB Intellectual Property.
IB merchandise and publications can be purchased through the IB Store (email: firstname.lastname@example.org). Any commercial use of IB publications (whether fee-covered or commercial) by third parties acting in the IB’s ecosystem without a formal relationship with the IB (including but not limited to tutoring organizations, professional development providers, educational publishers and operators of curriculum mapping or teacher resource digital platforms etc) is prohibited and requires a subsequent written license from the IB. License requests should be sent to email@example.com. More information can be obtained on the IB public website.